Tag Archives: City Pillar Shrine

Chiang Mai: Exploring Old City Temples on foot

Chiang Mai is nestled among the forested foothills of Thailand’s mountainous northwest. Old City is dominated by temples and surrounded by a medieval wall and moat.

Gate to Chiang Mai's City Pillar Shrine and Wat Chedi Luang
Gate to Chiang Mai’s City Pillar Shrine and Wat Chedi Luang

We immediately noticed that there are a lot of foreigners in Chiang Mai. What I noticed was the large number of North Americans and Europeans. It was only on the second day that I noticed the large numbers of Chinese and Koreans.

The shrine's giant tree and a yaksha
The shrine’s giant tree and a yaksha

Above are the gate to Chiang Mai’s City Pillar Shrine and Wat Chedi Luang and the giant tree that towers over the walls. Below you can see the City Pillar Shrine, the nearest building. There is a small fee to enter this temple complex.

City Pillar Shrine
City Pillar Shrine

The City Pillar or Lak Mueang was moved here from Wat Inthakhin Sadue Muang in 1800 by King Chao Kawila. I don’t know why this City Pillar is in the shape of a human figure, unlike those in Udon Thani and Ban Dung – or why women are forbidden to enter this shrine.

Chiang Mai's City Pillar
Chiang Mai’s City Pillar

Next door is a wihan, the shrine hall that contains the principal Buddha images of this temple complex. This is the assembly hall where monks and laypeople congregate.

Wihan
Wihan

Among the Buddha images inside is Phra Chao Attarot (Eighteen-cubit Buddha).

Phra Chao Attarot (Eighteen-cubit Buddha)
Phra Chao Attarot (Eighteen-cubit Buddha)

Behind the wihan is Wat Chedi Luang. Construction of this temple started in the 14th century, but finished in the 15thn century. It was then 82 meters high and had a base diameter of 54 meters, at that time the largest building in the Lanna Kingdom.

Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang

In 1545, the upper 30 meters of the structure collapsed after an earthquake.

Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang

In the early 1990s the chedi was reconstructed, financed by UNESCO and the Japanese government. The result is somewhat controversial, as some claim the new elements are in Central Thai style, not Lanna style. The top was not reconstructed because no one knows what it looked like.

Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang

Some of the temple’s elephants were reconstructed.

Wat Chedi Luang
Wat Chedi Luang

From the chedi/stupa there’s more space to get a good look at the wihan.

Wihan
Wihan

The chedi is surrounded by impressive buildings and statues and such.

At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang

Wat Chedi Luang hosts monk chats daily. Tourists are invited to speak with monks (usually novices) and ask them anything about Buddhism or Thailand.

At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang

We had set out on a walking tour of Old City temples. City Pillar Shrine and Wat Chedi Luang are highlights of Chiang Mai’s Old City. They became our first stop because they were near our hotel, and too enticing to save for later.

At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang

With over 120 temples within the city walls it is important to prioritize. We had a route and a map, but I’d suggest reviewing each temple on any such tour to be identify the ones you most want to visit. Walking between sites is tiring in the Thai heat, and we spent a good amount of time at many of the temples sites we visited.

At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang
At Wat Chedi Luang

City Pillar Shrine and Wat Chedi Luang are a must-see in Chiang Mai.

reclining Buddha at Wat Chedi Luang
reclining Buddha at Wat Chedi Luang

Even though we left Wat Chedi Luang with new ideas about the length of temple visits, and knowing that it would be important to prioritize, we made it less than a block along before we made an unplanned stop at nearby Wat Phan Tao.

Wat Phan Tao
Wat Phan Tao

Wat Phan Tao was founded in the 14th century. Like most of the temples of that time, it is constructed from teak with gold accents.

Wat Phan Tao
Wat Phan Tao

An especially striking teak and gold temple beckoned from Intrawarot Road. We didn’t realize at the time that this is Wat Inthakhin Sadue Muang, the original home of the City Pillar.

Wat Inthakhin Sadue Muang
Wat Inthakhin Sadue Muang

Three Kings Monument is a bronze statue of and shrine to Kings Mengrai, Ramkamhaeng and Ngam Muang, who worked together in the late 1200’s to design and build Chiang Mai.

Three Kings Monument
Three Kings Monument

Less than a minute away from our next destination we were drawn into a small alley by the beauty of Wat Lam Chang. The gardens contribute nicely to the beauty of this small temple next to ruins of an old chedi.

Wat Lam Chang
Wat Lam Chang

Lam Chang means “shackled elephants”. King Mengrai kept his white elephants in the forested area here during the construction of Chiang Mai.

Wat Lam Chang
Wat Lam Chang

King Mengrai lived at the location of Wat Chiang Man during the building of Chinag Mai.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

In 1297 he built Wat Chiang Man as Chiang Mai’s first temple. One of the standing Buddhas below is said to be the oldest intact Buddha in Chiang Mai.  It has the year 1465 CE engraved on its base.

Inside the wihan at Wat Chiang Man
Inside the wihan at Wat Chiang Man

Chiang Mai was build to replace Chiang Rai as the capitol of the Lanna Kingdom. Chiang Mai means “New City”. The Lanna Kingdom became the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, a tributary state of Thailand from 1774 to 1899, and then the seat of a  ceremonial prince until 1939.

Inside the wihan at Wat Chiang Man
Inside the wihan at Wat Chiang Man

Also inside the wihan is a display with 9 different Buddha statues, with signs suggesting appropriate prayers for 8 of them. Those 8 are each associated with a different day of the week, with Wednesday morning and evening separately represented. Depending on the day you were born, one pose will have particular significance for you.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

Before my little Tukata explained further, I saw it as a gallery of the various Buddha statue poses. From left to right they are (above): Earth Touching Buddha, the most common pose found in Thai temples, Sunday Buddha is similar to Contemplation Buddha, and the pose suggests mental insight, and Protection Buddha (Monday).

Below middle: Reclining Buddha (Tuesday), Alms Collecting Buddha (with the bowl for donations – Wednesday morning).

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

Below: Buddha sitting with Monkey and Elephant (Wednesday evening), Meditation Buddha (Thursday), Naga Buddha (Friday).

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

There are more poses that appear in traditional Buddha statues. You can learn about them in more detail here.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

The ‘Elephant Chedi’ is the oldest construction in the Wat Chiang Man temple complex.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

There’s an outdoor shrine to King Mengrai.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

I found the shrine below to be a very cool and innovative approach.

Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man
Wat Chiang Man

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang) is hidden away in the middle of an Old City block, and the buildings seem to be open to visitors at limited or irregular hours, but it’s one of my favorite temple complexes in Chiang Mai.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

The area is crowded with structures, but full of spectacular detail.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

There don’t seem to be many tourists here.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

A Google Maps review suggests that some of the architecture may show a Burmese style.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

The stupa would appear to be the oldest structure at the site.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

Some reviews warn about the stray dogs. I couldn’t miss them, but they gave us no trouble.

Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)
Wat Saen Muang Ma Luang (Wat Hua Khuang)

Our walking tour of Chiang Mai’s Old City temples continued, but experience has taught me to limit the size of my posts. I’ll bring you the second half of our walking tour in my next post.

As always, Wikipedia was invaluable in providing information for this post.

Please enjoy the full gallery of 60 pictures below.

City Pillar Shrine, Udon Thani & Ban Dung

A City Pillar Shrine is built to house a City Pillar or lak mueang, placed in most Thai cities to be the center, heart and soul of the city and her citizens. The Pillar is a continuation of ancient customs in which a City Pillar was erected first and represented the intent to build a city.

Ban Dung City Pillar
Ban Dung City Pillar

The shrine is also believed to house Chao Pho Lak Mueang, the city spirit deity. In the cities of Udon Thani and Ban Dung, and probably in many other Thai cities as well, there are other guardian and protector spirits and deities to honor, and so the City Pillar Shrine is part of a complex of shrines and effigies to those deities.

City Pillar Shrine, Udon Thani

Udon Thani’s  City Pillar Shrine is a sort of park in Udon Thani’s city center with a number of shrines and temples, and a large statue of the Udon Thani Province‘s protecting god.

Udon Thani's City Shrine
Udon Thani’s City Shrine

The City Pillar is visible inside of the shrine in the picture below. People remove their shoes before entering this shrine as the would a temple, and kneel and pray before the Pillar.

Udon Thani's City Shrine
Udon Thani’s City Shrine

Wetsuwan is one of the Four Heavenly Kings; four Buddhist gods, each of whom watches over one cardinal direction of the world.

Wetsuwan is the chief of the four kings and protector of the north. He is the ruler of rain.  He is often associated with the ancient Indian God of wealth, Lord Ganesh. His name means “he who hears everything”.

The Chinese depict Wetsuwon as a human king, but in Thailand he is depicted as a Yaksa, a usually friendly nature spirit, often appearing in southern Asia as a guardian deity. He is seen as the guardian deity of the Udon Thani Province.

I’m sure whether Chao Pho Lak Mueang is a proper name or just a title applied to any city spirit deity, but I was told that the name of Udon Thani’s guardian deity is “Udon Thani”. It is said to reside in the shrine below.

City Pillar Shrine
City Pillar Shrine

The gold statue in the middle of the shrine, in the picture below, may be an effigy of the guardian deity, or may be seen as the deity itself, I’m not sure which.

The park is surrounded by government buildings, including the Udon Thani Provincial Hall and the Office of Buddhism. Smaller villages in the area still have faded pictures of the departed 9th king, who passed away nearly one year ago at the time of my visit, but the center of Udon Thani displays a new picture of the 10th king.

Udon Thani Provincial Hall
Udon Thani Provincial Hall

Apparently there’s always construction going on in the park. There’s still lots of room for new stuff. The structure below reminds me of the one built in Bangkok for the cremation ceremony of Thailand’s 9th king which took place at the end of October.

A new structure in the works
A new structure in the works

The interior of the building below is lots of pillars, and nothing else.

An empty building
An empty building

The Chinese temple is interesting for many reasons, starting with its very different style.

Chinese temple
Chinese temple

The cute Phaya Naga in front of the temple would seem to be an acknowledgement that this Chinese temple is located in northeastern Thailand.

Phaya Naga
Phaya Naga

A small building nearby offers a good look at some little Chinese dragons.

Chinese dragon
Chinese dragon

It’s a great little structure with a lot of detail.

On the grounds of the Chinese temple
On the grounds of the Chinese temple

Dragons and various other creatures decorate the roof of the temple…

Chinese temple
Chinese temple

…and the rest of the temple as well. This temple was fenced off for some reason, so it wasn’t possible to get a closer look.

Chinese temple
Chinese temple

Placed around the temple are the animals of the Chinese zodiac; below are the rabbit and the ox.

Rabbit and ox
Rabbit and ox

City Pillar Shrine, Ban Dung

In Ban Dung I visited Chao Por Si Sut Tho City Pillar Shrine.

Chao Por Si Sut Tho City Pillar Shrine
Chao Por Si Sut Tho City Pillar Shrine

The most prominent feature of this park is a large statue of  Por Si Sut Tho, the Phaya Naga who lives in the Kham Chanot Forest. “Por” is an honorific commonly given to Si Sut Tho that is normally applied to monks, which he is not. “Chao”, which is apparently also used at times, is normally applied to kings, which Por Si Sut Tho also is not.

Por Si Sut Tho
Por Si Sut Tho

My little Tukata tells me that Por Si Sut Tho takes the form shown below, with a human upper body (or even a fully human form), when he emerges onto the land, but takes the more commonly seen serpentine form when he’s in the water.

Por Si Sut Tho
Por Si Sut Tho

There are a number of nice buildings in the park, and there may be interesting stories behind the entities to whom they are dedicated. The shrine below has something to do with Por Si Sut Tho and his wife, Ya Bat Tho Ma.

Unidentified shrine
Unidentified shrine

Below is the shrine of Ban Dung’s City Pillar.

Shrine of Ban Dung's City Pillar
Shrine of Ban Dung’s City Pillar

Below is the City Pillar itself.

Ban Dung City Pillar
Ban Dung City Pillar

Please enjoy the Udon Thani City Pillar Shrine gallery of 18 pictures below, and the Chao Por Si Sut Tho City Pillar Shrine gallery of 8 pictures below that.